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Particulate Matter

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Particulate matter (PM), defined as the sum of solid and liquid particles suspended in the air, is often divided into two main groups: the coarse fraction with a size ranging from 2.5 to 10 µm (PM10–PM2.5), and the fine fraction with a size smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5). PM can be generated from various sources such as unpaved roads, vehicles, agricultural processes, uncovered soil, mining operations, as well as burning of fuels. Statistical data show that in Europe, 1378 thousand tonnes of PM2.5 are generated in year 2016, accounting for 5% of the total main air pollutants including sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) [1]. This chapter will focus on the thermochemical process of solid fuels such as biomass and biowaste, because these types of fuels today are increasingly being used for energy purposes and have contributed to PM emission in many regions of the world. The presence of PM is significantly relevant to health problems, smog formations, acid rain issues, and climate changes. Characterization of PM is challenging, because PM is not only made up of a complex group of components (mainly black carbon, organics, sulfate, nitrate, alkalis, trace metals, crustal material and salt), but also comes in a wide range of sizes from nanoparticles (diameter less than 0.05 µm) up to millimeter-sized particles. In addition to this, PM characteristics are also proven to depend on various factors such as fuel type, thermal technology and temperature. Detailed knowledge of PM released during biomass and biowaste thermal conversion is essential for controlling air emissions. Over the last decades, attempts have been made to better understand the mechanisms and pathways of PM formation. Also, techniques are developed for PM sampling, collection and analysis, as well as the understanding of its physical and chemical characteristics. This chapter will thus be structured into four parts dedicated to PM fundamentals, collection techniques, physical and chemical characterizations. Available sampling devices, standards, analytical methods and techniques will be presented. Advantages, disadvantages, and major applications regarding biomass and waste thermal conversion will also be presented.
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hal-02494330 , version 1 (28-02-2020)



Jun Dong, Yong Chi, Augustina Ephraim, Ange Nzihou, Lina Maria Romero Millan. Particulate Matter. Ange Nzihou. Handbook on Characterization of Biomass, Biowaste and Related By-products, 2, Springer International Publishing, 1267-1306 (Chap. 14), 2020, 978-3-030-35019-2. ⟨10.1007/978-3-030-35020-8_14⟩. ⟨hal-02494330⟩
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