Calcium as an innovative and effective catalyst for the synthesis of graphene-like materials from cellulose - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles Scientific Reports Year : 2022

Calcium as an innovative and effective catalyst for the synthesis of graphene-like materials from cellulose

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Abstract

Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass (hard carbon) produces poorly graphitic biochar. In this study, nano-structured biochars were produced from microcrystalline cellulose using calcium as a non-conventional catalyst. Calcium is abundant, environmental-friendly and widely accessible. Graphitization of calcium-impregnated cellulose was carried out at 1800 °C, a temperature below 2000 °C where the graphitization usually occurs. XRD, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution TEM together with the in-house numerical tool developed enable the quantification of the graphene fringes in the biochars. The non-impregnated cellulose biochar was composed of short and poorly stacked graphene fringes. The impregnation with 2 wt.% of calcium led to the conversion of the initial structure into a well-organized and less defective graphene-like one. The graphene-like structures obtained were composed of tens of stacked graphene fringes with a crystallite size up to 20 nm and an average interlayer spacing equal to 0.345 nm, close to the reference value of standard hexagonal graphite (0.3354 nm). The increase of the calcium concentration did not significantly improve the crystallite sizes of the graphene-like materials but rather drastically improved their rate. Our results propose a mechanism and provide new insights on the synthesis of graphene-like materials from bio-feedstocks using calcium where the literature is focused on transition metals such as iron and nickel among others. The decrease of the graphitization temperature below 2000 °C should lower the production cost as well as the environmental impact of the thermal graphene-like materials synthesis using biomass. This finding should stimulate further research in the field and broaden the application perspectives.
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Dates and versions

hal-03918518 , version 1 (02-01-2023)

Licence

Attribution - CC BY 4.0

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Théotime BEGUERIE, Elsa Weiss-Hortala, Ange Nzihou. Calcium as an innovative and effective catalyst for the synthesis of graphene-like materials from cellulose. Scientific Reports, 2022, 12, pp.21492. ⟨10.1038/s41598-022-25943-3⟩. ⟨hal-03918518⟩
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