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Extraction and Characterization of Nanomaterials from Agrowaste

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Green chemistry started for the search of benign methods for the development of nanoparticles from nature and their use in the field of antibacterial, antioxidant, and antitumor applications. Biowastes are eco-friendly starting materials to produce typical nanoparticles with well-defined chemical composition, size, and morphology. Cellulose, starch, chitin and chitosan are the most abundant biopolymers around the world. All are under the polysaccharides family in which cellulose is one of the important structural components of the primary cell wall of green plants. Cellulose nanoparticles can be extracted from agrowaste resources such as jute, coir, bamboo, and pineapple leaves, coir etc. Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose, it is a characteristic component of the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods and nanoparticles of chitin can be extracted from shrimp and crab shells. Chitosan is the derivative of chitin, prepared by the removal of acetyl group from chitin. Starch nanoparticles can be extracted from tapioca and potato wastes. The preparation of these nanoparticles includes both series of chemical as well as mechanical treatments; crushing, grinding, alkali, bleaching and acid treatments. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy are used to investigate the morphology of nanoscale biopolymers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction are being used to study the functional group changes, crystallographic texture of nanoscale biopolymers respectively. Since large quantities of bio wastes are produced annually, further utilization of cellulose, starch and chitins as functionalized materials is very much desired. These nanoparticles can be converted into smart and functional materials by functionalization through chemical modifications due to the presence of large amount of hydroxyl group on the surface. The cellulose, starch and chitin nanoparticles are currently obtained as aqueous suspensions which are used as reinforcing additives for high performance environment-friendly bio-degradable polymer materials. These nanocomposites are being used as biomedical composites for drug/gene delivery, nano-scaffolds in tissue engineering and cosmetic orthodontics. The reinforcing effect of these nanoparticles results from the formation of a percolating network based on hydrogen bonding forces.
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hal-02494272 , version 1 (28-02-2020)



Deepu Gopakumar, Nathalie Lyczko, Hanna Maria, Ange Nzihou, Sabu Thomas. Extraction and Characterization of Nanomaterials from Agrowaste. Ange Nzihou. Handbook on Characterization of Biomass, Biowaste and Related By-products, 2, Springer International Publishing, 841-897 (Chap. 7), 2020, 978-3-030-35019-2. ⟨10.1007/978-3-030-35020-8_7⟩. ⟨hal-02494272⟩
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